Annotated Bibliography

Theme: South Asian immigration in the U.S. from the late 19th century to the mid-20th century.

Bains, J. S. “The Ghadar Movement: A Golden Chapter of Indian Nationalism.” The Indian Journal of Political Science 23, no. 1/4 (1962): 48-59.

            Bain’s article provides a thorough understanding of how the Ghadar movement effected South Asians not only in the U.S. but abroad as well. The author discusses the origins, politics, preparation for revolt, the infiltration, and its lasting effects for South Asian Americans and South Asians abroad.

Bald, Vivek. Bengali Harlem and the Lost Histories of South Asian America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.

            Bald’s book examines Bengali immigration and settlements in the U.S. from the late 19th century to the mid-20th century. The author mainly explores the integration of the of the Bengali men into the working class ethnic communities, histories the connect these South Asian immigrants by means of race and language and the impact of Bengali women in and out of America. His book displays the understanding of how the elements of class, race, and gender of these South Asian migrants had led to growth of their political solidarity.

Bald, Vivek. “Desertion and Sedition: Indian Seamen, Onshore Labor, and Expatriate Radicalism in New York.” In The Sun Never Sets: South Asian Migrants in an Age of U.S. Power, edited by Bald, Vivek, Miabi Chatterji, Sujani Reddy, and Manu Vimalassery,75-102. New York: New York University Press, 2013.

            Bald’s article explores the stories of Indian seamen and their contribution to the South Asian labor migration and to the Indian nationalist cause in New York during the early-twentieth century. This article is essential to my literature review because it examines how key Indian seamen were to the global spread of Indian nationalism and anti-colonialism.

Bald, Vivek. “Selling the East in the American South.” In Asian Americans in Dixie, edited by Khyati Y. Joshi and Jigna Desai, 33-47. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2013.

            Bald’s article examines how Bengali Muslim peddlers break from the ‘American exceptionalism’ and the traditional paradigm of migration in the U.S. through their settlements in the U.S., and interactions with American society the late-nineteenth century to the early-twentieth century.

Brown, Emily C. Har Dayal: Hindu Revolutionary and Rationalist. Tucson, Arizona: The University of Arizona Press, 1975.

            Brown’s book examines the life of the activist, Har Dayal. The author focuses on the intellectual journey of Har Dayal that had led him to found and lead the Ghadar Party. This book is relevant to my literature review because it uses the life of Har Dayal to display the rise in political activism amongst South Asians in America and abroad.

Gibson, Margaret A. “Punjabi Orchard Farmers: An Immigrant Enclave in Rural California.” The International Migration Review 22, no. 1 (1988): 28-50.

            Gibson’s article examines the adaptive patterns of Punjabi Orchard farmers to demonstrate how ethnic claves help promote economic self-sufficiency among immigrants. The author explores the history between Punjabi immigrants and farming in California and how that correlates to the growth of their own economic self-sufficiency as an American minority.

Gonzales, Juan L. “Asian Indian Immigration Patterns: The Origins of the Sikh Community in California.” The International Migration Review 20, no. 1 (1986): 40-54.

            Gonzales’ article examines the immigration and settlement patterns of Asian Indians in the U.S. in the 20th century.  The author mainly focuses on the struggles (racial discriminations and legal restrictions) that the Sikh pioneers faced in the West Coast.  Gonzales wants to understand the how the Sikh community in California came to be and how these Sikh immigrants adapted to their environment.

Jensen, Joan M. The Passage from India: Asian Indian immigrants in North America. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1988.

            Jensen’s book examines the journey and racial and exclusionary laws Asian Indian immigrants faced during their migrations. The author focuses on the immigrant laws and racial exclusions these Asian Indians encountered in their settlements abroad. This book is relevant to my literature review because it demonstrates the impact immigrant laws had on the diasporic South Asian settlements in America and abroad.

Joshi, Khyati Y. “Standing Up and Speaking Out: Hindu Americans and Christian Normativity in Metro Atlanta.” In Asian Americans in Dixie, edited by Khyati Y. Joshi and Jigna Desai, 190-210. Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2013.

            Khyati Y. Joshi’s article explores the self-advocacy of the Indian American Hindu community in Metro-Atlanta’s White and Christian hegemony society. The author specifically focuses on the community’s relationship with our religiously pluralistic democracy.

LaBrack, Bruce, and Karen Leonard. “Conflict and Compatibility in Punjabi-Mexican Immigrant Families in Rural California, 1915-1965.” Journal of Marriage and Family 46, no. 3 (1984): 527-37.

            LaBrack and Leonard’s article examines the struggles Punjabi-Mexican immigrant families faced in California from 1915-1965. The authors specifically analyze how these interethnic families came to be, childrearing and the gender roles the spouses had in American society at that time. They also examine the conflicts and complications the family unites faced in American society.

La Brack, Bruce. “Evolution of Sikh Family Form and Values in Rural California: Continuity and Change 1904-1980.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 19, (1988): 287-309.

            La Brack’s article explores the evolution of the Punjabi Sikh family and family life structure in rural California from 1904-1980. The author focuses on the two phases of Sikh family life/structure in California; which are Sikh-Mexican and a more traditional Sikh family structure. He specifically wants to see how this changing period of Sikh family structure effects the social elements and values of Sikh immigrants in America.

La Brack, Bruce. The Sikhs of Northern California, 1904-1975. New York: AMS Press, 1988.

            La Brack’s book examines the history of Punjabi Sikhs in California from 1904-1975. The author explores the migration, settlements, Sikh-Mexican marriages and family structures, land laws and minority rights for Sikhs in California.  This book is relevant to my literature review because it explores the history of Punjabi Sikhs in California from an economic, political and socio-cultural perspective.

Leonard, Karen. “Historical Constructions of Ethnicity: Research on Punjabi Immigrants in California.” Journal of American Ethnic History 12, no. 4 (1993): 3-26.

            Leonard’s article looks at the biethnic community of Punjabi and Mexican immigrants in California. She also explores the notion of the ‘Hindu’ self-identity of the second-generation Punjabi-Mexican immigrants. The author also analyzes their ethnic identity from a socio-cultural perspective.

Leonard, Karen. Making Ethnic Choices: California’s Punjabi Mexican Americans. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992.

            Leonard’s book examines the ethnic identity of Punjabi Sikhs in California around the early 20th century. She focuses on the family structure and marriage between Punjabi men and women of Mexican descent and the creation of Punjabi-Mexican identities and their American ones as well.

Leonard, Karen. “Punjabi Farmers and California’s Alien Land Law.” Agricultural History 59, no. 4 (1985): 549-562.

            Leonard’s article examines the impact of California’s alien land law on Punjabi farmers. The author analyzes the effect the law had on the Punjabi farmers, which caused them to integrate themselves into other immigrant communities. She also examines how the myriad of reactions of Punjabi farmers to the land law.

Leonard, Karen. “Punjabi Pioneers in California: Political Skills on a New Frontier.” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 12, no. 2 (1989): 69-81.

            Leonard’s article explores how the Punjabi pioneers in California adapted and used their experience with the British empire in California. The author specifically looks at all the ways these Punjabi pioneers could go around California’s Alien land law and create connections with other ethnicities and establish roots in California.

Nayan, Shah. “Intimate Dependency, Race, and Trans-Imperial Migration.” In The Sun Never Sets: South Asian Migrants in an Age of U.S. Power, edited by Bald, Vivek, Miabi Chatterji, Sujani Reddy, and Manu Vimalassery, 25-45. New York: New York University Press, 2013.

            Shah’s article examines how South Asian migrants encountered and dealt with the obstacles that the U.S. and British empire-states set up to hinder their mobilization from North America to the Pacific and Central America. The author specifically looks at the laws that excluded women that reinforced the migration solo South Asian males.

Sohi, Seema. “Repressing the “Hindu Menace”: Race, Anarchy, and Indian Anti-colonialism.” In The Sun Never Sets: South Asian Migrants in an Age of U.S. Power, edited by Bald, Vivek, Miabi Chatterji, Sujani Reddy, and Manu Vimalassery, 50-71. New York: New York University Press, 2013.

            Seema Sohi’s article explores how U.S. and British officials labeled Indian anticolonialists as a “Hindu Menace” through transnational practices and anti-Asian racism policies to behoove Indian exclusion and deportation. The author also used Bureau of Immigration files, surveillance reports and congressional hearings on Indian anticolonialists as evidence for state repression.

Sohi, Seema. Echoes of Mutiny: Race, Surveillance, and Indian anticolonialism in North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

            Sohi’s book examines the anticolonialism, and state surveillance done by the political governments in North America. The author’s focus is to understand how South Asians were radicalized and racialized in America. This book is relevant to my literature review because it examines the history of anti-Asian racism and its impact on South Asian immigrants transnationally in America and abroad.  

Sohi, Seema. “Race, Surveillance, and Indian Anticolonialism in the Transnational Western U.S.-Canadian Borderlands.” The Journal of American History 98, no. 2 (2011): 420-36.

            Sohi’s article examines how the policies and politics of Asian exclusion created and embedded ideologically ties between white workers, immigration authorities, and elected officials in North America. The author focuses on how all of those things contributed to the U.S. -Canadian border relationship, immigration exclusionary laws, and transnationalism.

Wenzel, Lawrence A. “The Rural Punjabis of California: A Religio-Ethnic Group.” Phylon (1960-) 29, no. 3 (1968): 245-56.

            Wenzel’s article examines the socio-cultural characteristics of East Indian ethnicity through origin, material culture, religion, correlating the historic background of East Indians to present day ones, and their voluntary activities. The author focuses on how the Sikh religion of the East Indians affected the socio-cultural characteristics of the East Indians in America.